A field full of crops is, to a macaque, a wonderful opportunity to obtain plentiful food without much risk or effort. Humans, who depend on these crops, can see the macaques as pests or thieves. Indeed, crop-raiding can threaten human livelihoods.
Mitigating crop raiding
Vigilant guarding of crops / chasing with dogs / firecrackers
Crop guarding can be effective, but it is both time- and labour-intensive. Crop guarding can be undertaken in a welfare-friendly manner, but this is not always the case.
Traditional fencing using thorn and bush
May be ineffective as macaques are good at developing alternative strategies.
May be effective, but expensive to instal and maintain on a large enough scale.
Planting buffer crops unattractive to macaques (eg coffee)